A highly engaging, powerful, and provocative courtroom drama
Some movies flow so superbly you just can’t look away, and such is the case with this week’s powerful courtroom drama, “Anatomy of a Murder”. This intoxicating masterpiece has it all – fascinating characters, virtuoso performances, an intriguing story, exquisite visuals, and topnotch direction – all flavored by an edgy Grammy Award winning jazz score by Duke Ellington. It's all so riveting, the film's two hours and forty minutes fly by before you know it. Nominated for seven Academy Awards (including Best Picture) and chosen in 1989 by the American Bar Association as one of the twenty-five best trial films of all time, it stands among the greatest courtroom dramas ever made and is one heck of an entertaining film.
Set in the fictitious small town of “Iron City” in Upper Michigan, the film follows lawyer "Paul Biegler” as he tries a murder case. It turns out that US Army Lieutenant "Frederick 'Manny' Manion" murdered the man who raped his wife, “Laura”. Jailed for the crime, “Manny” believes he is justified for the murder, so “Laura” approaches “Paul” to represent “Manny” with the hopes of getting him out of jail. The film follows the entire case from “Paul’s” learning about it, and straight through the trial and final verdict. As “Paul” pieces things together, so do we. In essence, we become the jury.
Might sound like an easy task given that ”Manny” admits to committing murder. But somehow motives, facts, and actions become questionable, and any rush to judgement becomes a complicated challenge. Everyone’s morals (including the lawyers) are in question and everything becomes more complex than straightforward. “Paul” says it best when he explains to someone, “As a lawyer I've had to learn that people aren't just good or just bad, but people are many things”. There’s a constant feeling that there’s a lot more going on than meets the eye, creating truly engaging drama.
“Anatomy of a Murder” sheds light on the legal system and its juries, lawyers, judges, and witnesses, and also speaks to how justice is determined by who gives the best show at the trial rather by crime facts or the law. All the legal insight is not surprising, because the film was based on a 1958 novel (of the same name) by Michigan Supreme Court Justice John D. Voelker (under the pseudonym Robert Traver), based on a 1952 murder case in which he acted as defense attorney.
This magnificent film was directed by Otto Preminger, a director who loved to push censorship boundaries. He bought the movie rights and made a quite provocative film for its time – atypical Hollywood fare in many ways. Because of the subject matter, many words are said quite candidly that were barely if ever heard before in American films, such as “panties”, “rape”, “bra”, “sperm”, “contraceptive”, and “sexual climax” – several of which are said multiple times. The Motion Picture Production Code, which banned those words from American films, wanted many of them removed (and the words “rape” and “panties” deemphasized), but Preminger held his ground, making only minimal changes (like switching "penetration" to “violation”), somehow managing to get away with much of what he wanted and still get the Code’s seal of approval. Even so, the film was temporarily banned in Chicago for obscenity (which Preminger fought and won) and also faced a libel lawsuit from the widow of the actual man murdered (which she lost).
Preminger was not new to censorship issues. In fact, he is arguably the most important single figure to help bring down the Motion Picture Production Code which ruled what could and could not be shown in American films since 1934 (I explain the Code in my “Red Dust” post). Preminger’s 1953 romantic comedy "The Moon is Blue" (based on a Broadway play he directed) was his first film as an independent producer/director, and the Production Code and the Catholic Legion of Decency deemed it unacceptable, refusing to approve it for release unless changes were made. Because he had sufficient independent financial backing, Preminger refused to change it and released it himself without their seal of approval – the first major American film to do so. It was a hit (largely from all the publicity), delivering the first mammoth blow to the Code.
But there’s more to Preminger’s brilliant direction in “Anatomy of a Murder” than explicit words. He manages to take a film that is truly just a series of conversations and completely captivate an audience for well over two hours. That is no simple feat. He wastes no time, omitting anything frivolous or unimportant, going rapidly from scene to scene with ease. A few scenes feel almost like vignettes, giving us the needed information and then quickly moving on. This approach colors the film with a unique personality.
Known for having an objective style of directing, Preminger uses many long takes with fluid camera movements that follow and observe his characters. It’s as if Preminger’s the lawyer presenting his case (the film) to us (the audience). A stunning example is the shot when “Paul” first visits “Thunder Bay Inn”. He enters the empty bar and the camera follows him for ninety seconds as he walks around and inspects the place. Preminger doesn’t point anything out with closeups or cutaways, but instead shows us “Paul” trying to gather clues to piece together the case. It makes us impartial and eager to see what he finds.
Another standout characteristic of “Anatomy of a Murder” is its stark sense of realism. It was shot entirely on location, and it’s black and white cinematography helps evoke that cold, wintery feeling. While scouting exterior locations in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, Preminger boldly decided to film the entire movie there and use actual places where the real life events occurred, if possible. Filmed in and around Ishpeming and Marquette, Michigan, the courthouse, jail, and hospital scenes were all filmed in their real-life counterparts, and “Paul's" home/office was filmed at Voelker's actual home/law office. Because the locations were so isolated and far from Hollywood, Preminger was able to remain completely free of any studio meddling.
The career of Austro-Hungarian Empire born (today Ukraine) Otto Preminger began with a love of the theater and a desire to become an actor. He was the son of the Prosecutor General of the Hapsburg Empire, and after World War I (and facing much antisemitism – the Preminger's were Jewish), the family settled in Vienna when he was nine (Preminger later claimed Vienna was his birth city), and that's where he began to act and produce plays. Following in his father's footsteps, he studied law where he formed strong ideas about right, wrong, and justice. But when famed theater director Max Reinhardt began his own theatrical company, Preminger left law to join Reinhardt, becoming his protege. In 1931 Preminger began directing theater, and that year he was also approached to direct an Austrian film "Die große Liebez” (“The Great Love”), his film directorial debut.
After Preminger gained a reputation as one of Europe's most distinguished theater directors, Hollywood took notice, and after directing the Broadway play "Libel" in 1936, Preminger headed West with a directing contract at Twentieth Century Fox. He was first given B-pictures, beginning with the 1936 musical "Under Your Spell". The headstrong Preminger had a notorious temper, and after a dispute with studio head Darryl Zanuck while making the 1938 film "Kidnapped", Fox ended Preminger’s contract. Finding it impossible to get work in Hollywood, he headed back to Broadway with major success, directing and starring in 1939’s "Margin for Error". While Zanuck was temporarily away, Fox decided to make the screen version of "Margin for Error” and called Preminger to appear in it. He refused unless he could direct as well, so Preminger directed and acted in "Margin for Error”. Fox then offered him a new seven year contract.
In 1944, Preminger directed what became his most famous studio film, the classic noir "Laura", which earned him his first Best Director Academy Award nomination. He continued directing studio assigned films, adding his own style and flair to the degree he could while working for a studio. These films include “Fallen Angel”, "Daisy Kenyon", “Whirlpool”, and "Where the Sidewalk Ends”. As the studios were losing power in the 1950s, Preminger decided to go independent and seek his own financing. This gave him total control over every aspect of his films. He was now able to flourish as an artist.
Free to make the films he wanted, Preminger began with 1953’s controversial “The Moon is Blue”, followed by more Code-busting, groundbreaking films like "The Man with the Golden Arm” (one of Hollywood's first to deal with heroin addiction), "Anatomy of a Murder” (which earned him a Best Picture Oscar nomination as the film’s producer), and "Advise & Consent” (which involved homosexuality and had a scene in a gay bar). Other titles from his independent years include "River of No Return”, "Exodus", "In Harm's Way", and 1963's “The Cardinal” (which earned him a second Best Director Academy Award nomination), and he produced and directed two all-Black musicals, 1954's “Carmen Jones” and 1959's "Porgy and Bess”. The last film he directed was 1979's "The Human Factor". As an actor, he appeared in fourteen films and TV shows, including as "Mr. Freeze" on two episodes of the 1960's classic TV series "Batman", and perhaps most famously as a German officer in Billy Wilder's Oscar-winning film "Stalag 17”.
Preminger was a flamboyant figure whose imposing looks, bald head, and unapologetic demeanor helped make him a household name. A tyrant with a temper that many feared, he earned nicknames that included "Otto the Terrible" and "Otto the Ogre". Some believe his temper was deliberate, to help create publicity and keep control over cast and crew. His temper caused actress Linda Darnell to collapse twice on the set of "Forever Amber", and some believe his sadistic behavior towards actress Jean Seberg (who starred in his films "Saint Joan" and "Bonjour Tristesse”) helped lead her to suicide. He was married three times, including his final marriage to costume designer Hope Bryce (who worked on many of his films, including "Anatomy of a Murder"). Otto Preminger died in 1986 at the age of 80.
A highlight in “Anatomy of a Murder” is the extraordinary performance of James Stewart as “Paul Biegler”, the town’s former public prosecutor, now an attorney at law. It is thrilling to watch an actor inhabit a role so completely that they transform into a nuanced, living and breathing individual, and Stewart’s performance is one of those rare joys. You can watch him in any scene and witness dialogue flowing naturally along with beautifully delicate reactions. This is great acting. “Anatomy of a Murder” earned Stewart his fifth (and final) Best Actor Academy Award nomination in what many have called the best performance of his career. In addition to his Oscar nomination, he earned the New York Film Critics Circle’s Best Actor Award and the Venice Film Festival's Volpi Cup.
“Anatomy of a Murder” ended one of the greatest periods in Stewart’s career. Having become a major movie star playing idealistic, easygoing, goodhearted types in the 1930s and 1940s, by the 1950s he began to form a more cynical and morally dubious screen persona in films such as “Winchester ’73”, "The Naked Spur", "Rear Window”, and “Vertigo". “Anatomy of a Murder” capitalized on the likable, small-town quality of his early years, and combined it with his new darker persona. He is somehow both friendly and forceful in a mature, understated, and matter of fact performance. I’ve previously written about the life and career of the great James Stewart in my posts “The Philadelphia Story”, "It's a Wonderful Life”, "You Can't Take It with You”, and “The Shop Around the Corner”. Just click on each film title to read more.
All the performances in “Anatomy of a Murder” are impressive, including that of Lee Remick, who is outstanding as “Laura Manion”, “Paul’s” wife. While an obvious sexpot with a wild streak and strong will, “Laura” seems to possess other hidden qualities we are always trying to unravel. And Remick’s fantastic depiction keeps us interested and guessing the entire time. "Laura" says she loves her husband and has always been faithful, yet appears afraid of him and flirts with every man in sight (including “Paul”). She also says she’s lonely. It is an exciting and layered performance. All of Remick's scenes shine, and one that stands out for its simpleness is when “Paul” finds "Laura" sprawled on his office couch with her dog “Muff”. The way she sexually teases him (from her reaction when he says he is not married to how she puts on her sunglasses) makes a benign conversation tantalizing. Remick brings mounds of depth to the film.
A Method actor trained at New York’s famed Actors Studio, after several television appearances, “Anatomy of a Murder” was merely Remick’s fourth film, and it proved the breakthrough that helped her transition to leading roles. She had a vibrant career in film, TV, and stage for nearly forty years until her death at the age of 55. You can read a bit more about the very talented Lee Remick in my post on her first film, “A Face in the Crowd”. Please check it out.
Another fine performance is that of Ben Gazzara as “Lt. Frederick ‘Manny’ Manion”, “Laura’s” husband and “Paul’s” client. He's a twenty-eight year old decorated solider who believes in an unwritten law that because his wife was raped he is justified in killing the man who raped her. Like everyone else, “Manny” is shrouded in an air of mystery and we never know exactly what’s going on in his mind. Gazzara excels at making the fiery, jealous, shady character feel a bit dangerous and real. Just take his second meeting with “Paul” when “Paul” asks, “What’s your legal excuse for killing ‘Barney Quill’?”. While being tough and insolent, Gazzara lets us see the wheels turning in “Manny’s” mind, grasping for what to say. It’s another rich performance that keeps us glued to the screen.
Ben Gazzara was born in New York City to Italian immigrants, and early on discovered a love of acting. After two years at college studying electrical engineering, he earned an acting scholarship and began studying at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School, followed by the Actors Studio. His Broadway debut came in 1953's "End as a Man", followed by the original production of Tennessee Williams' "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" (starring as "Brick"), which made Gazzara the toast of Broadway. The original production of "A Hatful of Rain” followed, earning him his first Tony Award nomination. He first TV appearances were in two episodes of "Treasury Men in Action" in 1952, and he made his film debut starring in 1957’s "The Strange One” (a film version of "End as a Man”). "Anatomy of a Murder" was his second film. Both method actors, he and Remick worked together offscreen to create their character's onscreen relationship.
Gazzara appeared steadily in mostly lesser films (his better films largely came later in life), alongside television and Broadway work. Of the over 130 films and TV shows in his long and prosperous career, other notable films include "The Big Lebowski", "The Thomas Crown Affair", "The Spanish Prisoner", "Voyage of the Damned", "Road House", and "Saint Jack", and three directed by John Cassavetes ("Husbands", "The Killing of a Chinese Bookie" and "Opening Night"). On TV, Gazzara earned four Emmy Award nominations with a win for the 2002 miniseries "Hysterical Blindness". His Broadway work earned him two additional Tony Award nominations (in revivals of “Hughie/Duet" and "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?”). He was married three times, including to actresses Louise Erickson and Janice Rule. Ben Gazzara died in 2012 at the age of 81.
Arthur O'Connell turns in a very touching performance as “Parnell McCarthy”, a former top lawyer who’s turned to alcohol. A good friend and inspiration to “Paul”, “Parnell” becomes his partner in the case and Stewart and O’Connell play off each other with a stunning finesse. From the first time we meet “Parnell” in a bar having a drink, O’Connell displays an immense and infectious amount of vulnerability and kindness. "Parnell" is a weary, beaten down, but good man and O'Connell's moving performance earned him a Best Supporting Actor Academy Award nomination. From the very cold Michigan weather, O’Connell came down with phenomena, briefly having to be hospitalized during the shoot.
A stage, screen, and TV veteran, New York City born Arthur O'Connell began his impressive career on stage in the early 1930s and landed his first film role (uncredited) in 1938's "Freshman Year". He continuously appeared in small and bit roles in films through 1942, such as that of a reporter in the final scenes in "Citizen Kane". After serving in the Army, he returned to the theater and then films in 1948. His career took off with his role as "Howard Bevans" in the original Broadway production of "Picnic", and his reprisal of the role in the 1955 film version earned him his first Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination. Now an established character actor, O'Connell began appearing in better roles and top films, including "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit", "The Proud Ones", "Bus Stop", and "Anatomy of a Murder" (earning him his second and final Oscar nomination). He appeared in film and TV through the mid 1970s, and is a face classic movie watchers most likely recognize. There are many classic films in his 142 film and TV credits, others of which include "The Solid Gold Cadillac", "Fantastic Voyage”, "Gidget", "State of the Union", "The Hiding Place” (his final film), and as "Chaplain John” in a film already on this blog, "The Poseidon Adventure”. In addition to guest spots on many TV shows (such as "Night Gallery", "Lassie", and "Bonanza"), he starred in the 1960s series "The Second Hundred Years". He was married and divorced once. Arthur O'Connell died in 1981 at the age of 73.
Another familiar face to readers and watchers of the films on this blog is Eve Arden as “Paul’s” secretary, “Maida Rutledge”. Much more than a secretary, she offers moral support and helps with the case, while adding wry humor along the way. Arden is marvelous in the role, and her unassuming and convincing performance gives us the sense that “Maida” is a fun, no-nonsense type of gal. Best known for comedy, Arden skillfully and unaffectedly infuses humor into a mostly dramatic part. Offscreen she reportedly had the same dry humor we see onscreen, and evidently knitted much of the time on the set. After two actors quit the role of prosecuting attorney “Mitch Lodwick” in "Anatomy of a Murder", Arden suggested her husband, actor Brooks West (and he got the part). You can read more about the life and career of Eve Arden in two previous posts, “Mildred Pierce” and “Stage Door”.
George C. Scott plays “Claude Dancer”, a high-powered, slick city prosecutor who works with “Mitch” during the trial. Preminger saw Scott in a play and offered him the role of the bartender, but Scott wanted to play “Claude”. Perhaps his determined boldness was just enough to convince Preminger, for Scott got the role he wanted. And in a non confrontational way, he delivers a fiery first-rate performance, making “Claude” a force to be reckoned with. Take his very arresting scene interrogating “Laura” on the witness stand as he ever so subtly flirts with her. Details like this enrich this film and demonstrate Scott's talent. His performance earned him a Best Supporting Actor Academy Award nomination.
After four years in the Marines, Virginia-born George C. Scott set out on a career in journalism until he appeared in a college play. Bitten by the acting bug, he took to the stage, making his way to New York in 1957 where he received immediate critical acclaim starring in Joseph Papp's production of "Richard III". His Broadway debut in 1958's "Comes a Day", earned him his first Tony Award nomination. After a TV appearance on an episode of "The Bigelow Theatre” in 1951 and a bit part in the 1956 film "Somebody Up There Likes Me", he officially began his film and TV career in 1958. His official film debut was in 1959's "The Hanging Tree", and his second film was "Anatomy of a Murder", which jumpstarted his career. After a slew of TV shows, his next film was a supporting role in the 1961 classic "The Hustler" opposite Paul Newman, which earned Scott a second Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination (which he refused). He continued on TV, Broadway, and in substantial roles in more classic films including "The List of Adrian Messenger" and perhaps most famously as "General 'Buck' Turgidson" in Stanley Kubrick's "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb”.
Scott’s gravelly voice and tough volatile air were perfect for playing military roles, and he became a top movie star portraying General George S. Patton Jr. in 1970's "Patton", which won him a Best Actor Academy Award (his only win). He refused the nomination, didn't attend the ceremony, and had the statue returned to the Academy the next day. Feeling he was not in competition with other actors, he publicly said of the Oscars, "The whole thing is a goddamn meat parade. I don't want any part of it". But his work was so strong he earned a fourth and final Oscar nomination as Best Actor for "The Hospital” the following year. In 1980, his wife, actress Trish Van Devere, said that his issues with the Academy began when he lost the Oscar for "Anatomy of a Murder". She said, "When he lost, it did a bad thing to him and his personal character. He decided he would never let that happened again".
Scott's other notable films include "The Changeling", "Hardcore", "Taps", "Petulia", "The Hanging Tree", "Islands in the Stream", "The New Centurions", and as the voice of "McLeah" in "The Rescuers Down Under”. He directed two films ("Rage" and "The Savage is Loose") and one TV movie ("The Andersonville Trial"). An immensely talented actor, in addition to Scott's Oscar win and nominations, he earned two Emmy Awards with eight nominations for his TV work, and five Tony Award nominations for his Broadway work. He was married five times, including to actresses Carolyn Hughes and Patricia Reed, twice to actress Colleen Dewhurst, in addition to Devere. George C. Scott died in 1999 at the age of 71.
A quick mention of actor John Qualen who plays “Deputy Sheriff Sulo”. Qualen was a very popular character actor who has appeared in two previous films on this blog, "The Searchers" and "His Girl Friday” (where you can read more about him). It’s a quick role with no real showcasing of his talent, but his believability provides a beautiful example of how bit parts help create a realistic atmosphere in a film, making the world within it feel real.
One non actor featured in a major role is Joseph N. Welch as “Judge Weaver”. Preminger had trouble casting this part and Welch was suggested to him. He was a Boston lawyer who represented the US Army in the McCarthy Senate hearings (which were televised), and during the hearings in 1954, Welch famously confronted Senator Joseph McCarthy, asking "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?”. It was a turning point in history, believed to have lead to the downfall of McCarthyism, and it turned Welch into a national hero (you can read more about the McCarthy Era in my “High Noon” post). “Anatomy of a Murder” was Welch’s only film appearance, and his wife appears as one of the jurors. He earned a Best Supporting Actor Golden Globe nomination for the part. Joseph N. Welch died in 1960 at the age of 69.
As stated, “Anatomy of a Murder” was atypical in many ways, but perhaps its most unusual aspect was its jazz score by Duke Ellington. Jazz scores themselves were not unheard of and were quite the rage in the 1950s and early 1960s, but never for a film of this nature. Jazz in movies always signified sophisticated city life, certainly not rural America. Preminger approached Ellington to write the score, and from the moment it begins over the opening credits, it lets us know this will be one edgy film. This landmark score has a sexy, free, improvised feel, which goes hand in hand with the sense that everyone in the film is trying to find their way.
Preminger invited Ellington to the entire shoot, feeling it would help give him a deeper sense of the film. Ellington appears in the film with members of his orchestra as “Pie-Eye”, playing music at "Thunder Bay". He is first seen sharing a piano bench with "Paul" while playing the piano together. Censors in South Africa asked that scene be cut from the film (a Black man and white man sharing a bench) and Preminger refused and said if they didn't include it, they couldn't show his film.
Arguably the most important figure in jazz music, Washington, D.C. born Duke Ellington had been a major force in music since the 1930s, performing a style no one had ever heard before. A pianist, composer, and band leader, he was pivotal in the history of jazz, composing well over seventy hits while expanding our perceptions of music. Just some of his songs include "Mood Indigo", "It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing)", "Satin Doll", "I Got It Bad (and That Ain’t Good)", "Never No Lament (Don’t Get Around Much Anymore)", and "Take the A Train". "Anatomy of a Murder" was Ellington's first film score, and it earned him his first three Grammy Awards (Best Sound Track Album, Best Musical Composition First Recorded and Released in 1959, and Best Performance by a Dance Band). His illustrious career garnered eleven Grammy Award wins and twenty two nominations. He composed the score for three more films : "Paris Blues" (earning him his only Best Score Oscar nomination); "Assault on a Queen"; and "Change of Mind”. Duke Ellington died in 1974 at the age of 75. A true music legend.
Finally, a mention of something I’ve not yet talked about in this blog – opening credits. During the silent era, as studios took over the film industry, movie stars became moneymakers and unions were born for cast and crew, and a standard format for displaying credits before a film emerged, primarily on static title cards (occasionally written on the turning pages of a book). Not considered part of the film, these credits were shown over rising theater curtains just before the "story" started. But Preminger changed all of that with “Carmen Jones” in 1954, when he hired graphic designer Saul Bass to create art for the title sequence. They followed it with 1955’s “The Man with the Golden Arm”, featuring a title sequence of moving lines and graphics, and theaters were told to raise the curtain BEFORE the opening credits began, making it an official part of the film.
Then came “Anatomy of a Murder”. Like the rest of the film, its opening credits were unconventional, brilliantly using simple cut outs of body parts moving about the screen. It very much goes with the edgy, improvisational feel of the score in setting the mood, and symbolically expresses the idea of murder and dissecting a "body" of evidence. It made Bass famous and revolutionized opening title sequences, which became creative in the 1950s through the 1970s (until end credits took over). Bass worked on more Preminger films, including “Saint Joan”, “Bonjour Tristesse”, “In Harm’s Way”, "Exodus”, “Advise & Consent”, and “The Cardinal”, and also famously worked with Alfred Hitchcock on films that include "Vertigo", "North by Northwest", and "Psycho". Preminger also had Bass create advertising for his films, and some of them, such as this one, did not feature movie stars on the posters or ads, which was unheard of at the time.
Other title sequences from the fifty plus Bass designed include "Spartacus", "Around the World in 80 Days", "The Seven Year Itch", and “Goodfellas". Asked by directors and producers to visualize and storyboard key scenes in several films, Bass acted as a "visual consultant" on five films, including directing most of the racing scenes in "Grand Prix" and storyboarding the famous shower scene in Alfred Hitchcock's "Psycho". Bass directed six short films, earning three Oscar nominations (winning one for his 1968 documentary short "Why Man Creates"), and directed one feature film, 1974's "Phase IV”. He was married twice. Saul Bass died in 1996 at the age of 75.
In addition to Best Picture, Best Actor, and its two Best Supporting Actor Oscar nominations, "Anatomy of a Murder" earned Academy Award nominations for Best Adapted Screenplay (Wendell Mayes), Best Cinematography (Sam Leavitt), and Best Film Editing (Louis R. Loeffler).
Solid, exciting, and compelling, this week’s film is exemplary entertainment. Enjoy an utterly riveting classic, “Anatomy of a Murder”!
This blog is a weekly series (currently biweekly) on all types of classic films from the silent era through the 1970s. It is designed to entertain and inform movie novices and lovers through watching one recommended classic film a week. The intent is that a love and deepened knowledge of cinema will evolve, along with a familiarity of important stars, directors, writers, the studio system, and a deeper understanding of cinema. I highly recommend visiting (or revisiting) the HOME page, which explains it all and provides a place where you can subscribe and get email notifications for every new post. Visit THE MOVIES page to see a list of all films currently on this site. Please leave comments, share this blog with family, friends, and on social media, and subscribe so you don’t miss a post. Thanks so much for reading!
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